Agricultural science is a broad multi-disciplinary field of biology more typically called botany that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture.
The three terms are often confused. However, they cover different concepts:
Agriculture is the set of activities that transform the environment for the production of animals and plants for human use. Agriculture concerns techniques, including the application of agronomic research.
Agronomy is research and development related to studying and improving plant-based crops.
Agricultural sciences include research and development on:
Improving agricultural productivity in terms of quantity and quality selection of fertilizer,proper management of water resources, selection of crops, development of new pesticides.Minimizing the effects of pests (weeds, insects, pathogens, nematodes) on crop or animal production systems.
Transformation of primary products into end-consumer products , Products which are grown after farming are not always completely useful for end user, sometimes it requires transformation or mechanical process which it needs to go before it could be of any use.
Prevention and correction of adverse environmental effects (e.g., soil degradation, waste management, bioremediation)
Theoretical production ecology, relating to crop production modeling
Traditional agricultural systems, sometimes termed subsistence agriculture, which feed most of the poorest people in the world. These systems are of interest as they sometimes retain a level of integration with natural ecological systems greater than that of industrial agriculture, which may be more sustainable than some modern agricultural systems.
Food production and demand on a global basis, with special attention paid to the major producers, such as China, India, Brazil, the USA and the EU.
Various sciences relating to agricultural resources and the environment (e.g. soil science, agroclimatology); biology of agricultural crops and animals (e.g. crop science, animal science and their included sciences, e.g. ruminant nutrition, farm animal welfare); such fields as agricultural economics and rural sociology; various disciplines encompassed in agricultural engineering.